FLORENCE T. CUA'S SELF PUBLISHED BOOKS
90Sr from WORLDWIDE FALLOUT in TEETH and BONES, 1992 $50
ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS in TEETH, 1992 $50
Update: National Library of Medicine-references and some abstracts
On Element(Ca, P, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Mg, F, Na, Pb, Hg, and Cd) Concentrations in
Teeth and Bones, after 1992 I paid $105 for it.
PO, PB, RA, PU, CM, U, TH, AM, CF, MO, and TC RADIONUCLIDES in
TEETH and BONES, 1994, $100
Updated post 1992 included
MISCONCEPTIONS about RADIATION, PART I, FACTS are
STRANGER than FICTION in HIROSHIMA/NAGASAKI and the
MARSHALL ISLANDS, PART 2, VOL.1. 1995 $50 (color photos)
MISCONCEPTIONS about RADIATION, VOL. 2 (or alternatively titled)
FACTS OR FICTIONS about RADIATION in 20 MOVIES. 1999. $50
MISCONCEPTIONS about RADIATION, VOL. 3 (or alternatively titled)
MORE FACTS OR FICTIONS about RADIATION in 11 MOVIES
BOOK of LISTS about RADIATION RELATED MATERIALS,
VOL. I. specifically MARSHALL ISLANDS PUBLICATIONS, 1995, $65
VOL II. specifically HIROSHIMA, NAGASAKI, WEAPONS RESEARCH, and
HUMAN RADIATION EXPERIMENTS, 1996 $65
DESTRUCTION OF PLUTONIUM and RADIATION IN SPACE, 1998-1999 $75
(websites and NTIS abstracts)
(56 pages compilations of data on Radiation in Space)
RADIATION and ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH and SAFETY(websites) 1999 $50
RADON, INDOOR AND REMOTE MEASUREMENT OF, 2000 available in the Encyclopedia
of Analytical Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. United Kingdom
ENERGY SOURCES(compilation) $40
ASBESTOS(compilation)(query: how can we removed the asbestos fibers from the lungs?)
LEAD IN TEETH from RESIDENTS OF FORMER CLARK AIR BASE and SUBIC NAVAL BASE
DENTAL AND VETERINARY X-RAY MACHINE HAZARD SURVEY $300 for the first machines and $100 for each additional machines
PHILIPPINE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY WITH WEBSITES
PHILIPPINE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING ANNUAL MEETINGS PROCEEDINGS, 1991-2005 $100
Dr. F.T. Cua-Christman, MS3, PhD, presentations at 11 PAASE meetings from 1991-2005 excluding 1992, 1993, 1994(just attendance) and 2003(fear of SARS Epidemic which did not materialize.)
COMPILATION OF MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS FOR HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN THE WORKPLACE. $50
ABSTRACT OF RADIATION STERILIZATION OF ANTHRAX BACILLUS SPORES IN THE MAIL.
COMPILATION OF HAZARD SURVEY REPORTS FOR X-RAY
MACHINES-DENTAL, VETERINARY, CABINET, SCANNING ELECTRON
MICROSCOPE, X-RAY DIFFRACTION, AND X-RAY FLUORESCENCE (2000-
IS RADIATION HAZARD SURVEY WARRANTED FOR X-RAY MACHINES (DENTAL,
VETERINARY, CABINET X-RAY MACHINES, SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPES,
X-RAY DIFFRACTION AND X-RAY FLUORESCENCE MACHINES), 2003?
PARAMETERS THAT AFFECT PATIENT EXPOSURE FROM DIGITAL VS. NON-
DIGITAL DENTAL X-RAY MACHINES, 2004.
PAASE Virtual University, see http://ftcuacalltogreatness.blogspot.com
RADIATION SAFETY GUIDE. $70. CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN. $70.
HAZARD COMMUNICATION RIGHT-TO-KNOW. $70.
BLOODBORNE PATHOGEN PROTECTION PROGRAM. $70.
LASER SAFETY GUIDE. $35.
COMPILATIONS of NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE (NTIS) PUBLICATIONS ($25 each)
INVENTIONS, CLONING, FUTURE TRENDS in INTERNAL MEDICINE, CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH, PULMONARY MEDICINE, PSYCHIATRY, ORTHOPOEDIC SURGERY, GASTROENTEROLOGY, OPHTHALMOLOGY, OBSTETRICS and GYNECOLOGY, OTOLARYNGOLOGY, ALLERGOLOGY, NUTRITION, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY and HEALTH in MEDICINE and DENTISTRY, OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE, RADIATION RELATED MATERIALS in SPACE CENTERS, LASER DEVICES, FIBER OPTICS and X-RAY DIFFRACTION in MEDICINE and DENTISTRY, NUCLEAR SUBMARINES, ALVIN, UNDER-WATER and MARINE OPERATION and ACCIDENTS, RADIATION THERAPY, RADIATION ONCOLOGY and NUCLEAR MEDICINE, CHERNOBYL AND TOPICS YOU NEED
To order or for additional information contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org
Please add shipping and handling charges.
Sr-90 from Worldwide Fallout in Teeth and Bones, 1992
Deciduous Teeth and Permanent Teeth have been used by a host of countries in monitoring the distribution of Sr-90 from worldwide fallout. Countries with Sr-90 in teeth and/or bone data available in the literature include Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Marshall Islands, Norway, People’s Republic of China, Poland, Rumania, Slovakia/Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, UK, USA, USSR, and West Germany. Factors affecting the Sr-90 concentration in teeth and bones depend on the location, birth year, age, sex, date of extraction, species of teeth, kind of milk feeding, presence of caries, kind of bone and the agricultural practices. Some of the predictive modelling from diet items, theoretical expressions for Sr-90
mBq/gCa in teeth based on tooth growth and milk uptake as well as bone metabolism deduced from Sr-90
assays results and characterization of Sr-90 distribution in human skeleton are discussed.
This book was bought by Radiation and Public Health Project, http://www.radiation.org and they did further studies on the Sr-90 levels in current teeth samples as a result of the Chernobyl accident.
According to Wheeler(Wh1974), the crowns were completed 1 1/2 months to 11 months after birth. The roots were completed 1 1/2 years to 3 1/4 years. A study of Reiss(Re1961) showed that in shed, rootless teeth, 32% of the average incisor, 6% of the cuspid, 17% of the first molar, and 5% of the second molar are formed prenatally which means that 68% of the average incisor crown, 94% of the cuspid crown, 83% of the first molar crown, and 95% of the second molar crown are formed postnatally and all within a year of birth(Cua1981). For the Chronology of Human Permanent Dentition, see Table 2 in Cua(1992). The height of the nuclear weapons fallout of 90Sr was in 1963. See Figure1 which shows the Annual global fallout: estimated MCi of 90Sr and the 90Sr pCi/gCa in U.K. diet. Note the conversion to MBq and mBq/gCa. Sir Will Starkey, PhD of England Royal Naval Service wrote me in 1981 that I should study the relationship of the 90Sr in teeth in relation to 90Sr in diet. His permanent teeth(premolar and third molar)(crown and root)90Sr mBq/gCa activity concentration data were graphed in three dimension as a function of age and year of extraction by Frank Klatil. These graphs are obtained from the data in St1968, St1969, St1970, St1974. The mathematical formulation or modelling was done by Dr. Rosenthal(Ros1972). Figure 2 shows the 90Sr mBq/gCa content of milk and mean of deciduous crowns for St. Louis, Mo., USA(Ros1972). It is written up in Cua(1992, pp. 131-135, equations and mathematical modelling. Figure 3 shows the 90Sr mBq/gCa content in Deciduous Crown from St. Louis, Mo., USA (Ros72) calculated. Table 1 shows the 90Sr activity concentration mBq/gCa vs. Birth Year for different countries and deciduous and permanent teeth at the height of the nuclear fallout from weapon testings in 1963-1965 and prior to and after Chernobyl May, 1986. The Bibliographic List is in Cua(1992) and addendums. Email email@example.com References: Cua, F.T., 1992 90Sr from Worldwide Fallout in Teeth and Bones, self published by F.T. Cua, MS3
I want to refer you to William Robison, PhD’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory reprints on
1. Noshkin, V.E., Robison, W.L., and Wong, K.M. 1993, Concentration of Po-210 and Pb-210 in the diet at the Marshall Islands. The Science of the Total Environment. 155(1994), 87-104.
Po-210 in all fish mean 1725 Bq/kg wet wt; Pb-210 in all fish mean 26.8 Bq/kg wet wt.
2. Robison, W.L., Noshkin, V.E., Hamilton, T.F.. Conrado, C.L., and Bogen, K.T. 2001. An
Assessment of Current Day Impact of Various Materials Associated with the US Nuclear Test
Program in the Marshall Islands. UCRL-LR-143980.
Po, Pb, Ra, Pu, Cm, U, Th, Am, Cf, Mo, and Tc Radionuclides in Teeth and Bones, 1994
Macrodistribution and Microdistribution Studies of Po, Pb, Ra, Pu, Cm, U, Th, Am, Cf, Mo, and Tc Radionuclides in Teeth and Bones for animals and humans are discussed. The subjects are the environmentally exposed, occupationally exposed, Transuranium Registry, Radium Dial Painters, Uranium Miners and Millers, Marshall Islanders, Pu injection cases, Nuclear Medicine cases, etc.
Element Concentrations in Teeth, 1992
A comparison of the analytical methods of flame photometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, spark source mass spectroscopy, fluoride ion selective electrode, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, direct current plasma, anodic stripping voltammetry, optical emission spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, proton-induced x-ray emission, proton induced gamma emission, laser microprobe mass analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry
as it relate to the determination of element concentrations in teeth is discussed. The different methods are defined and compared with respect to detection limits, kind of instrumentation, and automation, costs, and sample preparation, specifically for teeth. The concentration in teeth of Ca, P, Zn, Mg, Sr, Cu, Fe, F, Na and others are evaluated with respect to diet, water supply, soil, geographical location, age, sex, type of tooth, dental diseases, e.g. caries, medical disorders, e.g. cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Wilson’s disease, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases, and factors such as smoking, drinking, accident,
oral cancer, drugs, HIV-AIDS, and others are discussed.
Misconceptions About Radiation, Part 1, Facts are Stranger than Fiction in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Marshall Islands, Part 2, Volume I, 1995
The misconceptions about radiation stem from the profligate use of radiation concepts in science fiction albeit erroneous to create interesting characters. Samples of these are: The Incredible Hulk, The Incredible Shrinking Man, Time Walker, Superman IV, The Quest for World Peace, Beneath the Planet of the Apes, Silkwood, Naked Gun 2 ½, Flash Gordon, China Syndrome, Blue Sky, The Atomic Café, Hiroshima Mon Amour, and The American Defense Monitor and in science fiction cards and comics, namely: the Invisible
Woman, Mister Fantastic, Daredevil, Spider-Lizard, the Hulk, She-Hulk, The Thing, Human Torch, Spiderman, Sandman, Doctor Octopus, Sentinels of Justice: Captain Atom, Radioactive Man, Fallout Boy, The Day Before Doomsday, The Return of the Neantherthal Man, and Solar Radiation Mutated Monster.
That is Part 1. Part 2 talks about Hiroshima,. Nagasaki, Marshall Islands, specifically, the Marshall Islands Nuclear Claim Tribunal the compensation for different types of cancers. Also, it contains the Oct. 1977 Marshall Islands field trip of Florence Cua. The MARSHALL ISLANDS is NOW an INDEPENDENT REPUBLIC.
Facts or Fiction About Radiation in 20 Movies, Volume II, 1999
The following movies were summarized and commented on on its factualness or purely fictionalized.
2001: A Space Odyssey, A Boy and His Dog, Atomic Kid, Dr. Cyclops, Dr. Strangelove, Empire of the Ant, Fail Safe, Godzilla, Radiation Biology and Genetics, Muroroa and Fangataufa Atolls, Goldfinger, Au-198 and other fission products, H-Man, Shadow, Mental Telepathy and Telekinesis, Star Trek 2: The Wrath of Khan, Free Khans and Chelating Agents Websites, Superman and the Mole Men, The Day the Earth Stood Still, Robots, The Fly, Teleportation Websites, The Kids with X-ray Eyes; and Tomorrow Never Dies.
Facts or Fiction About Radiation in 11 Movies, Volume III-still in progress 2005
The following movies are being summarized and commented on on its factualness or purely fictionalized.
The Days After Trinity: Oppenheimer and the Atomic Bomb, The Days After-Perils of a Nuclear War, Phantom Empire, On the Beach, Testament, Back to the Future I, II, III, Casino Royale, and 2 more I forgot
Facts or Fiction About Radiation 20 pages script, 2000
Video, partially done with excerpts from films with Radiation Genre.
Radon, Indoor and Remote Measurement of, 2000
The existing radon and radon progeny measurement instruments are described in this chapter in the Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. The various methods and instruments used depend on whether radon or radon/thoron progeny or daughter products are being measured, the duration of the measurement, whether short or long term and the type of radiation being detected whether alpha, beta, or gamma. The modes of detection used include the following: activated charcoal radon monitors, electret ion chamber, registration of nuclear tracks in solid-state materials, liquid scintillation, ionization chambers, scintillation detectors with zinc sulfide, ZnS(Ag), alpha particle spectrometers with silicon diodes, surface barrier or diffused junction detectors, and gamma ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl) scintillation crystals or germanium lithium (GeLi) semiconductor detectors, fiber optics sensors, and glass. The advantages and disadvantages will be described for various portable instruments used for measuring radon, thoron, and their daughter products. Comparison studies among the radon monitors will be included. The reader is referred in particular to Andreas George and National Council on Radiation Protection Report 97 for additional information.
Book of Lists About Radiation Related Materials, Specifically, Marshall Islands Publications, Volume 1, 1995
Included in this monograph are the following informations: list of radiation producing devices, radiation sources, and radiation machines, ratification or acceptance by states thereby becoming a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Non Proliferation Treaty, Status of High Energy Teletherapy and Brachytherapy Facilities in Africa, Environmental Isotope Hydrology Laboratories in the Asian and Pacific Region, in the Latin American, Middle East and European Regions, in Africa, Coordinated Research Programme-Participating Countries, Storage and Disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Wastes in Selected Countries of Africa, the Middle East, and Europe, North America and Asia and the Pacific, High-Level Waste and Spent Fuel Management Plans in Selected Countries, Irradiation Facilities for Treatment
Of Water, Wastewater, and Sludge that have been or are Operating, Radiation Sources in Research, Radiation Sources in Industry, Irradiation Facilities Around the World, Professional Society Participation, Health Physics Degree Program, Characteristics of Attractive Radioisotope Heat Sources, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (US Program), Nuclear Power Plant in the World, On Line Databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency, List of the International Commission of Radiation Protection Publications, List of the National Council of Radiation Protection Publications, Bibliography that mentions where to obtain the nuclear research reactors in the world, nuclear power reactors in the world, books in F.T. Cua’s personal Library relating to Radiation, Title, Author, Publisher and Date of Publications of Marshall Islands Publ.ications Available at the National Technical Technical Information Service.
Books of Lists About Radiation Related Materials, Specifically Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Weapons Research, and Human Radiation Experiments Publications(NTIS), Volume II, 1996
The following are included in this compilation: the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists clock, Atomic Energy Commission in different countries, High Energy Accelerators in the world, Environmental Protection Agency map of radon zones, the International Atomic Energy Agency cooperative networks, map of Iraq weapons sites, operational US Nuclear Weapons Stockpile, National Defense Research Council, US nuclear forces after Start II, protocol for implementing surface contamination guidelines, Beijing’s
Wall of Silence, the Nanjing Massacre and Unit 731, Israel’s nuclear weapons, safety of nuclear power reactors, South Pacific nuclear free zone treaty statement, Fallout in Paradise, France’s resumption of nuclear tests unleashes riots in Tahiti and condemnation around the world, Trinity Test, What the US Nuclear Arsenal really costs, 121 citations from National Technical Information Service bibliographic database of documents related to weapons research and human radiation experiments.
Destruction of Plutonium, 1998-1999
You may request from Florence Cua, MS3, the file on Destruction of Plutonium Websites and NTIS publications abstracts-transmutation using reactor or accelerator, vitrification or glassification using borosilicate glasses, interim storage facility, fission in reactor and nuclear power plants, send to outer space, burial in salt mines, etc. YOU DO NOT WANT NUCLEAR WAR –DO YOU?
Radiation in Space, 1998-1999
You may request from Florence Cua, MS3, the file on radiation in space-56 pages
There is much interest in Radiation in Space and the measurements thereof because of the
hazard it poses to the astronauts and cosmonauts. Previously National Council of
Radiation Protection and Measurements(NCRP) published a report NCRP 98 in July 31,
1989 entitled Guidance on Radiation Received in Space Activities which is exhaustive
and intensive and the author highly recommends it as a publication to read before this
review article, albeit there was error in the conversion to Standard International Unit from
the original documents. This review article focuses on the updated Radiation Dose
Measurements and Absorbed Doses and Dose Equivalents of the astronauts and
cosmonauts. Due to the findings and observations that 5 rem is exceeded in 175 days for
two cosmonauts and the longer term stay at the International Space Station in the future,
the author suggests that astronauts and cosmonauts be monitored closely for the Linear
Energy Transfer(Particle Nuclear Track Detectors using CR-39) Absorbed
Doses(Thermoluminescent Dosimetry, Emulsion, Fission Foil) and Dose Equivalents due
to trapped protons, neutrons, galactic cosmic rays and heavy ions by real time and
telemetry to ground control and be classified as Radiation Workers and be given Health
Physics Training. Shielding research and personnel protection studies should be
increased and As Low as Reasonably Achievable(ALARA) and De Minimis principles be
inculcated to those concerned. The career whole-body dose equivalent limit in Sv (see
Table 2) should be reevaluated after every crew member's medical examination.
The limits are 2-8 times of radiation workers on earth and 20-80 times that of John Q.
Public on earth.
BALIK(RETURNING) SCIENTIST PROGRAM OF FLORENCE T. CUA, MS3
AT THE PHILIPPINE NUCLEAR RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Florence T. Cua, MS3, signed a contract with the Department of Science and Technology under Dr. William Padolina and Balik Scientist Director Lydia Tansinsin and Dr. Alumanda de la Rosa, Acting Director of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute for a short term balik scientist program from June 3, 1998 to July 3, 1998. Florence T. Cua, MS3, worked as the counterpart of Mrs. Eulinia Valdezco, Chief, Radiation Protection Section(RPS) of PNRI based on a pre-planned work programme.
F.T. Cua suggested the need to consolidate by computerization the information on the National Registry of Radiation Workers by sectoral classification vis a vis their radiation dose records by film badge with medical history. An Epidemiological study to relate film badge doses with medical illnesses is suggested.
Comments by F.T. Cua, MS3, on the Radiation Safety Manual prepared by Fe Medina were discussed with Mrs. Valdezco.
Florence T. Cua, MS3, wrote with Estrella Caseria the protocols and Code of practice for radiation survey, radiation area monitors, contamination checks, personnel decontamination, calibration and leak testing of instruments as well as the QA/QC of teletherapy machines. F.T. Cua suggested that a properly refereed Radiation Safety Manual, Operational Radiation Control Procedures, and Waste Management Procedures be made available to the National Technical Information Service, USA for sale and the money in dollar amount be put into a Radiation Protection fund.
Florence Cua,MS3, Dr. Alumanda de la Rosa, and Edith Marcelo looked at different instrumentations to analyze the organic waste and identify the components: Gas Chromatograph(GC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC), Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry(GC-MS) vis a vis their availability. Dr. de la Rosa suggest the purchase of an HPLC. The radionuclide identification of the mixed waste was also discussed, i.e. NaI(TL) Scintillation crystal, Liquid Scintillation and others. Chemical analysis methods for toluene, xylene, and ethanol were faxed by Dr. Edward Christman of Christman, Cua Associates to PNRI on July 1, 1998.
F.T. Cua. MS3 obtained from Dr. Jay M. Gould of the Radiation and Public Health Project, USA, $200($100 for PNRI and $100 for control) for $1/tooth in a tooth fairy program for the analysis of Sr-90 in teeth of children in the aftermath of Chernobyl. See http://www.radiation.org.
Dr. Alumanda de la Rosa moderated the Radiation Session, Mrs. Eulinia Valdezco gave a talk on the radiation protection and nuclear waste management, Florence Cua, MS3 talked about her consulting in radiation and environmental protection company, Christman, Cua and Associates, see http://myprofile.cos.com/florencecua and Dr. Isagani Medina talked about his Cytogenetics Laboratory at PNRI on June 18, 1998 at the UP-PAASE-NAST meeting.
Radiation Safety Guides
It gives the do’s and don’ts in the safe use of radioisotopes, radiation sources and radiation machines. It formulates the guidelines in radiation protection and in dealing with radiation accidents. It tells of the responsibilities of the radiation safety committee and each authorized users. It gives the guidelines to radiation waste disposal and inventory of radiation usage and disposal. It also describes the protective clothing, gloves, and radiation monitoring.
Chemical Hygiene Plans/ Hazard Communication Right-to Know
Chemical hygiene plans are required readings by each chemical users for their protection and safety. It tells about the procedure for safe handling and labeling of toxic, reactive, inflammable, and corrosive materials and the use of hazardous substances fire proof cabinets. It details the procedures used in the case of accidental exposures to chemicals, toxic metals, fumes, and explosives. It details the procedures for hazardous waste management of the chemicals, etc. Lectures and Trainings on the Toxicity, Reactivity, Inflammability, and Corrosivity of Chemical Substances to their users in Right to Know Meetings are required to inform the users of the hazards of the chemicals. It is required of each new user to attend a hazard communication right to know meeting. Each hazardous material has a Material Safety Data Sheet
that is included in the shipment package.
Bloodborne Pathogen Protection Program
Bloodborne Pathogen Protection Program Manuals describe the safety program in handling biohazard substances such as AIDS and Hepatitits pathogens to ensure safe handling and no contamination and no infection in the use and disposal of the bloodborne pathogens. It describes the biohazard safety cabinets, autoclaving, and other modes of sterilization of bloodborne pathogens.
Laser Safety Guides
Lasers are classified as type 1, 2, 3, and 4. Type 1 lasers do not need special precautions but types 2, 3, and especially 4 do. The procedures are described in the laser safety guides. Special Eye Goggles are used to prevent damage to the eye.
Environmental and Health Impact Report
Known and Potentially
Former U.S. Military Bases
in the Philippines
Paul Bloom, PhD
Alex Carlos, MS
Jorge Emmanuel, PhD, CHMM
Theodore Schettler, MD, MPH
Available from Florence T. Cua, MS3
Also the proposal for the in vitro x-ray fluorescence of Pb, Cd, As, and Hg in the teeth of the residents of above areas
Philippine American Academy of Science and Engineering Membership Directory 2005 and meeting proceedings from 1991-2005.
Material Safety Data Sheets(MSDS) for several Hazardous Substances in the Workplace
Asbestos, Arsenic, Benzene, Cadmium, Carbon Monoxide, Chemical Agent Resistant Coating, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chromium, Hexavalent Chromium, Cyanide, Depleted
Uranium, Diesel Exhaust, Fomaldehyde, Lead, Lead Chromate, Mercury, Methylene Chloride, Methyl Ethyl Ketone, Mustard, Nitroglycerine, Nitrosamines, Nitrous Oxide,
Organophosphate, Pentachlorophenol, Radon, Silica, Sulfur Dioxide, Thorium-232, Toluene, Trichlorothylene, Tritium, White Phosphorus, Xylene
RADIATION STERILIZATION OF ANTHRAX BACILLUS SPORES
IN THE MAIL by FLORENCE CUA-CHRISTMAN, MS3
CHRISTMAN, CUA ASSOCIATES, PRINCETON, NJ 08540
Anthrax can infect by inhalation as spores, cutaneously, or by ingestion. The clinical symptoms of anthrax infection are fever, cough, dyspnea, headache, vomiting, chills, weakness, followed by hemorrhagic, thoracic, lymphadenitis, and mediastinities. The nation was awakened to the dangers of anthrax by 5 deaths by inhalation anthrax, namely: Robert Stevens(media)(10/5/01), Thomas Morris Jr.(postal) (10/21/01), Joseph Curseen, Jr. (postal)(10/22/01), Kathy Nguyen(unrelated) (10/31/01), and Ottillie Lundgren(unrelated)(11/21/01) and 2 cutaneous infection. In toto, eleven postal workers, eight media, four unrelated were infected with anthrax. The anthrax spores were delivered to Congressman Tom Daschel, Tom Brokaw’s studio, Senator Leahy, and the editor of the New York Post in the mail. There was a run on the antibiotics Ciprofloxacin or Cipro, other Quinolones, Amoxillin and Doxycycline. Due to all these occurrences, the postal system sent for irradiation by electron beam radiation for sterilization thousands of mails potentially containing the anthrax bacillus spores. The company that is doing the irradiation is Titan Scan Technologies in Lima Ohio and the Postal System. According to Dan Carestio of Isomedix, the D10 dose needed is 3 kGy. That is the dose that will kill 90% of the anthrax bacillus spores. 1Gy=100 Rad. 99% kill needs 30 kGy or 3 Mrad. According to Larry Schneider of Sandia National Laboratory, the total dosage needed is 5.4 Mrad or 54 kGy. According to Colonel Robert Eng, the Director of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute(AFRRI), the absorbed doses required to sterilize the mail is currently 56 kGy or 5.6 Mrad of 10 MeV electrons. The mail is also irradiated at the Ion Beam Applications in the Bridgeport section of Logan Township. The cost is according to IBA officials a cent per letter. The irradiation per box of mail is twice; the second 1800 from the first one. According to the Times, Nov. 27, 2001, the irradiated White mail might appear discolored with a yellow tint. Plastic windows on envelope could shrink or become brittle. Some mail may appear scorched. Plastic materials, like credit cards, could melt or be damaged. Photographs could appear washed out. Video and audiotapes and computer diskettes could be damaged. Compact discs have so far survived. The Senate office staffers working with irradiated mail suffer from eye, nose, and throat irritation, headaches, a burning sensation on hands and face, dizziness and nausea. This is because of the ozone and carbon monoxide produced from irradiated paper and volatile organic compounds or hydrocarbons produced from irradiated plastic used to wrap the mail during the irradiation process. They now ventilate the irradiated letters for 24 hours before it is delivered. I suggest they place the irradiated mail in a clean plastic wrap before they are delivered. Also, the plastics could be replaced by cardboard boxes. They could also robotize or mechanize the sorting of irradiated mail.
Note: Dr. Pedro Jose, MD, PhD, said that Penicillin is better than Cipro because of the bad side effects.
F.T. Cua, 2005. COMPILATION OF HAZARD SURVEY REPORTS FOR X-RAY MACHINES-DENTAL, VETERINARY, CABINET, SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE, X-RAY DIFFRACTION, AND X-RAY FLUORESCENCE (2000-2005¬)
IS RADIATION HAZARD SURVEY WARRANTED FOR X-RAY MACHINES (DENTAL, VETERINARY, CABINET X-RAY MACHINES, SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPES, X-RAY DIFFRACTION AND X-RAY FLUORESCENCE MACHINES)
BY FLORENCE CUA-CHRISTMAN, MS3
CHRISTMAN, CUA ASSOCIATES
PRINCETON, NJ 08540
Scattered Radiation in the Operator Position and in the Dental X-ray Room
Florence T. Cua-Christman
Measurements of scattered radiation from dental x-ray units were obtained by Christman, Cua Associates during surveys conducted in central New Jersey over the last several years. These data show that the typical exposure to persons operating the devices and those standing near the patient are uniformly quite low compared to the current standards. This raises the question as to whether the current regulatory requirements for these surveys, in New Jersey as well as 34 other states are necessary.
The New Jersey Administrative Code, (Title 7, Chapter 28) requires that a radiation safety survey be performed by a qualified expert on a dental x-ray unit within 60 days of its installation, relocation or significant repair or modification. The unstated objective of the requirement is to ensure that radiation doses to the operator of the device as well as others in the vicinity of the device is kept as far below the maximum permissible dose as possible. A suitable phantom is placed in the average patient position and measurements of the radiation exposure are taken at the operator’s position and at all nearby locations, which are normally occupied. For each measurement, the kVp, mA, exposure time, instrument reading, and correction made to the instrument reading (such as energy response, calibration, etc.) are recorded. The resultant report is submitted to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJ DEP). Since 2000, we have conducted surveys on 60 dental units, Christman Cua Associates(2004 unpublished data).
We present here a summary of the measurements we made at the operators position and the maximum exposures within the room containing the device.
Materials and Methods
In this case, the phantom is a 50 ounce plastic jar filled with tap water and located at the approximate position of the patient’s head. Measurements are made with a portable ionization chamber (e.g., Victoreen 450P or Inovision 451P) operating in the integrated exposure mode. The minimum detectable exposure is given by the manufacturer as 0.3 nC/kg (1 μR). The x-ray unit potential (kVp) and charge (mAs) are set at values routinely used by the dentist for patient exposures.
Table 1 shows the distribution of the exposure per shot at the operator’s position. Table 2 shows the distribution of maximum exposures in the patient area. This data is drawn from survey data produced from our surveys. The units of instrument readings are microroentgens and the accuracy is to the units place only so the conversion to SI units results in the unusual partitioning used in the tables.
The number of exposures per week is 71% for the range of 1-90, 22% for 91-180, 2% for 181-270, 3% for 271-360 and 2% for 361-450. 60% of the scattered radiation per exposure at the operator’s position is for the minimum detection level of <0.3 nC/kg (<0.001 mR).
Discussion of Results
If one assumes that 100 exposures per week are produced by the typical dental x-ray unit (the data from our surveys suggests a wide variation, from a few a week to as many as 450) then the highest weekly exposure at the operator position is about 258 nC/kg (1 mR). So an annual exposure of ~ 50 mR to the operator is not unreasonable. An observer in the patient room for a complete set of 18 dental exposures might be exposed to a maximum of 380 nC/kg (1.5 mR). Since it is unlikely that a single individual would be present for more than a few of these exposures, a typical annual exposure would be less than 2580 nC/Kg (10 mR).
These exposures are far below the limits suggested by authoritative organizations such as the International Commission of Radiation Protection( ICRP), National Committee of Radiation Protection and Measurements(NCRP) and the Health Physics Society. For example, the HPS recommends that “constraints be applied to controllable sources of public exposure radiation only when the effective dose equivalent is less than 0.25 mSv (25 mrem)
We surveyed the 50 state Radiation Protection programs by email, asking them if they required surveys similar to those in New Jersey for dental x-ray machines; 35 of the 41 respondents replied that they did.
Although the scattered radiation is miniscule, ranging from less than MDL to just 0.001-0.002 mR at the operator’s position and the scattered radiation in the x-ray room is predominantly 41% for 0.001-0.010 mR/exposure, it is best if the following is observed: that the operator be not the same person. If the operator is the same dental assistant or dental hygienist or dentist, then obtaining the mR/week at the operator’s position would be warranted. The scattered radiation in the room exists and this should be a warning against anybody other than the patient being in the x-ray room when the x-ray machine is energized. According to the position statement of the Health Physics Society 2003, the HPS supports the establishment of an acceptable dose of radiation of 1 mSv/y(100 mrem/y) above the annual natural radiation background. At this dose, risk of radiation-induced health effects are either nonexistent or too small to be observed. This author made a simple calculation with her data: the maximum mR/week at the operator’s position are 1.05 mR/week and 11.7 mR/week in the dental x-ray room.This is compared to 1.92 mR/week from 52 weeks per year of 100 mR/year.
Even if the scattered radiation to the operator or someone standing in the room is negligible , ALARA(AS LOW AS IS REASONABLY ACHIEVABLE) principles necessitate these hazard surveys of dental x-ray machines. In a questionnaire fielded to the 50 states of the United States of America plus District of Columbia, hazard survey is observed either by the state entities or designated consultants in hazard survey by Alabama(AL), Alaska(AK), Arizona(AZ), Colorado(CO), Delaware(DE), Florida(FL),Georgia(GA), Hawaii(HI), Idaho(ID), Illinois(IL), Indiana(IN), Iowa(IA), Kansas(KS), Louisiana(LA), Michigan(MI), Minnesota(MN), Mississippi(MS), Missouri(MO), Nebraska(NE), Nevada(NV), New Hampshire(NH), New Jersey(NJ), New Mexico(NM), New York(NY), North Carolina(NC), Oklahoma(OK), Oregon(OR), Rhode Island(RI), South Dakota(SD), Tennessee(TN), Utah(UT), Vermont(VT), Washington(WA), Wisconsin(WI), Wyoming(WY). The following states waive hazard survey: Montana(MT), Pennsylvania(PA), South Carolina(SC), Texas(TX), and Virginia(VA). One doesn’t want to be mentioned. There were 41 states respondents.
Christman, Cua Associates. Hazard Survey reports to the New Jersey Department of
Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiological Health for 2002-2004 for New Jersey
dental machine users, unpublished data; 2004.
Health Physics Society, http://www.hps.org position statement on Ionizing Radiation –
Safety Standards for the General Public; revised June 2003.
PAASE VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY
FLORENCE T. CUA-CHRISTMAN, MS3, PHD
CHRISTMAN, CUA ASSOCIATES
443 SAYRE DRIVE, PRINCETON, NJ 08540
The Philippine American Academy of Sciences and Engineering(PAASE) has to date 160 PhDs and counting. My poster will show the categorization according to the many different fields of sciences or engineering endeavors of the PAASE members. These fields are SCIENCES, for example: Agriculture, Natural Resources and Forestry, Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Sciences, Dental Research,
Earthquake Resistant Design, Food Science, Nutrition, Environmental Science, Geology, Marine Science, Medical Genetics, Oceanography, Mathematics, Pharmacy, Physics, Psychology, Radiation Science, NASA,
Nanotechnology, Statistics, and ENGINEERING, for example: Antibody Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering,
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering and FINANCE and ECONOMICS and CHRONIC DISEASES EPIDEMIOLOGY and MEDICINE, for example, neonatologist, immunologist, and hypertension research. To date,
there are 32 PAASE members working with Private Companies or working as Individuals, 77 teaching in Colleges or Universities, and 33 doing research at Research Institutions. Should the PAASE USA entities be further
delineated according to Northeastern Region, Metropolitan Washington DC, Midwest, SouthEast, SouthWest, Northern California plus Alaska, Southern California and Hawaii plus Canada? Should we delineate PAASE
Philippines as Luzon, Visayas and MIndanao.
The administration and online education is patterned after New Jersey Virtual University, http://www.njvu.org and Community of Science, http://www.cos.com. Let us discuss the formation of this PAASE USA/Philippines University at the Board Meeting and open it up for discussion to the General Membership. Questions like: will it just be for Philippine citizens and Phil-Am citizens? Would the PAASE University have an administration that is funded by tuition from the students and grant fundings from the faculty or researchers? Fund Raisings? Should there be a PAASE Employment Service? Administered through the individual private companies, educational and research institutions through their Human Resources.
PARAMETERS THAT AFFECT PATIENT EXPOSURE FROM DIGITAL VS. NON-
DIGITAL DENTAL X-RAY MACHINES, 2004.
The Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors(CRCPD) has published the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends(NEXT) Tabulation and Graphical Summary of the 1999 Dental Radiography Survey for non-digital dental x-ray machines. The parameters looked at are kVp, mAs, time msec, and the result is mR exposure or entrance skin exposure(ESE). Bradley Grinstead of Alabama X-ray Compliance Branch had data on digital x-ray machine on the above mentioned parameters as well as D and E speed film and digital ESE as a function of years 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiological Health through Mr. Paul Orlando and Dr. Jill Lipoti also gave the author data on non digital dental x-ray machines ESE vs. % of sample. The materials used are the dental phantom and ionization chambers. The method used is the NEXT protocol for dental measurement. The result shows that the time msec was inclined to the lower time msec intervals for digital compared to non digital. The mR exposure was twice less for digital vs. non digital in the range of 50-124 mR exposure. The kVp % of sample was increased 10 times in the 70-75 kVp range for digital vs. non digital x-ray machines. The New Jersey nondigital mR exposure levels were greater than the NEXT nondigital and Alabama digital levels. The D speed film mR exposure or ESE is greater than E speed film and greater than digital. This article presents the overwhelming evidence of less exposure for digital compared to non digital dental x-ray machines due to the lesser time of exposure for digital.