Sunday, March 25, 2007

NANOTECHNOLOGY

27th Annual PAASE Meeting and Symposium

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY(EHS) AND THE NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY

FLORENCE T. CUA-CHRISTMAN, MS3, PHD
PAASE UNIVERSITY
443 SAYRE DRIVE
PRINCETON, NJ 08540
Email: ftcua8@comcast.net

ABSTRACT
Is there a need for environmental health and safety(EHS) and environmental regulations and policies in nanotechnology in the USA and in the Philippines? The way to decide this is to look at the Material Safety Data Sheets(MSDS) for Buckminster Fullerene, Nanotubes, Nanowires, Polymer Nanocomposites, and other Nanomaterials. Then an Environmental Health and Safety Manual should be prepared by the Nanotechnology Health and Safety Committee. It should be a prerequiste of Environmental Regulations, Policies and Laws for Nanotechnology EHS. Funds should be made available for this purpose. For the Fiscal year 2006, the planned USA National Nanotechnology Initiative(NNI) investments: EHS R&D is $44.1 Million. http://www.nano.gov/html/society/EHS.htm for National Science Foundation($25.7 M), Department of Defense($1 M), Department of Energy($0.5 M), National Aeronautics and Space Agency(0), Health and Human Services-National Institute of Health($4.6 M), Health and Human Services- National Institute of Occcupational Safety and Health($3.0 M), Department of Commerce-National Institute of Science and Technology($1.8 M), United States Department of Agriculture-Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Services($0.1 M), Environmental Protection Agency($8 M) from http://www.nano.gov/html/society/Funding_SocDim.htm
For the NNI Agencies with R&D Budgets for Nanotechnology, the website is: http://www.nano.gov/html/gov/nniparticipants.html

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Environmental Health, Safety, Laws, MSDS

INTRODUCTION-COMPILATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY WEBSITES BY FTCUA

The initial literature review that I did are summarized in 34 websites:
http://ftcuananotechnologyweb.blogspot.com
PAASE NANOTECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE
http://paasenanoinitiative.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology.blogspot.com
http://ftcuacalltogreatness.blogspot.com
Philippine American Academy of Sciences and Engineering(PAASE)
http://www.paase.org
NANONEWS CUSTOM & others
http://ftcuananotechnology1.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology2.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology3.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology5.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology6.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology7.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology8.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology9.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology10.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology11.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology12.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology13.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology14.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology15.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology16.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology17.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnology18.blogspot.com
http://ftcuaREOHS.blogspot.com
http://ftcuaREOHSnanotechnology.blogspot.com
http://envlawsnanotechnology.blogspot.com
http://ftcuananotechnologyfunding.blogspot.com
http://fields-in-nanotechnology.blogspot.com
http://books-in-nanotechnology.blogspot.com
http://jobs-in-nanotechnology.blogspot.com
http://grants-in-nanotechnology.blogspot.com
http://usgrantsgov.blogspot.com
http://usgrantsgov1.blogspot.com
http://patents-in-nanotechnology.blogspot.com
http://QandANanotechnology.blogspot.com
http://NanotechnologyIdeasWorktodo.blogspot.com

OBJECTIVES

From the MSDS, one can see that EHS is needed. Samples of Nanotechnology Safety Manuals will be presented. Environmental Regulations and Policies in Nanotechnology necessitate these manuals. The author will present EHS and environmental regulations, policies and laws for Nanotechnology in the USA. The next step is to formulate for the Philippines. This article is a literature review that is very much needed to build in the future the PAASE Nanotechnology Initiative. Your comments are most welcome.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS(MSDS)

According to Dr. Loretta Schuman of OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION(OSHA), DEPARTMENT OF LABOR(DOL).

The most central place for nanotechnology information is at www.nano.gov. At that site you can also link to the nano websites of other agencies such as this one for NIOSH: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/nanotech/

Look at the following as well. First Gov.gov

http://firstgovsearch.gov/search?input-form=simple-firstgov&v%3Asources=firstgov-search-select&v%3Aproject=firstgov&query=nanotechnology

According to Dr. Loretta Schuman(OSHA, DOL): Individual manufacturers are responsible for preparing Material Safety Data Sheets(MSDSs), not OSHA. They are not required to send them to OSHA, so OSHA don't have them.

According to Robert Petricik of Environmental Health and Safety, Brookhaven National Laboratory, these are some of the companies and their MSDS.

Carbon Nanotechnologies Inc - http://www.cnanotech.com/
Carbolex - http://carbolex.com/
Nanocraft inc NCI - http://www.nanocraftinc.com/information/links.html
Nanocyl - http://www.nanocyl.com
Materials and Electrochemical Research Corp - http://www.mercorp.com/mercorp/
Nanotech wire - http://www.nanotechwire.com
Sigma Aldrich - http://www.sigmaaldrich.com

There are more NanoIndustries that are competing in the nanotechnology market.
http://www.nanoindustries.com/

Take a look at the MSDS that is 2005 vintage for Buckminster Fullerene

http://physchem.ox.ac.uk/MSDS/BU/buckminsterfullerene.html

There is no data for melting point, boiling point, vapour density, vapour pressure, density(g cm-3), flash point, explosion limits, autoignition temperature, toxicity data, risk phrases, and safety phrases in this particular MSDS.

The website for Environmental Health and Safety for the National Nanotechnology Initiative is: http://www.nano.gov/html/society/EHS.htm

There are three broad areas of government-funded research toward understanding EHS impacts of nanoscale materials. They are 1) basic research to expand knowledge and further understanding of how nanomaterials behave, including in the environment and in the human body; 2) research to develop instrumentation and methods for measuring, characterizing, and testing nanomaterials and for monitoring exposure; and 3) research toward assessing safety of chemicals, food, drugs and medical devices, among other items.

MORE MSDS ARE AVAILABLE WITH FTCUA at ftcua8@comcast.net

These MSDS which include chemical identification, hazard identification, first aid measures, fire fighting measures, accidental release measures, handling and storage, exposure controls/personal protection, physical and chemical properties, stability and reactivity, toxicological information, ecological information, disposal considerations, transport information, regulatory information, OSHA/PEL, ACGIH TLV are for Gold Nanoparticles, Nanorods of Metals, Nanorods and Nanowires of Conducting Polymers, Single Walled and Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes, etc.

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS, POLICIES AND LAWS

Subject: FTCua's suggestions towards Environmental Regulations and Policies in Nanotechnology

1. Make sure each nanomaterial comes attached with an MSDS or material safety data sheet.

2. Make sure the MSDS is as complete as possible. Do the lab work or toxicity studies and risk ratios through epidemiological studies, where plausible, if necessary and if funding is allocated for.

3. Make sure each nano facility comes equipped with an Environmental Health and Safety Program plus Occupational Health and Safety or EOHS.

4. Make sure each EOHS program has an EOHS safety manual or guide for Nanotechnological Research and Development and manufacturing. A Chemical Hygiene Plan should be included in the Nanotechnology Safety Manual or Guide. Perhaps for HIV/AIDS research on vaccines and drug delivery programs involving nanotechnological research, include a Bloodborne Pathogen Protection Program. The nanotechnology R and D should also be included in the lectures on Hazard Communication Right-to-Know.
http://wps2a.semi.org/wps/portal/_pagr/147/_pa.147/800?dFormat=application/msword&docName=P039478
“Nano Materials and Manufacturing Technology a Key driver in Biotechnology Advancement” By Doug McKesson
5. Where there is Nanotech-Biotech Convergence, the Environmental Regulations and Policies should include Biotech and Nanotech safety programs. http://www.biotechnologyftcua.com http://biotechnologyftcua.blogspot.com
http://ftcuareohsnanotechnology.blogspot.com
6. Air sampling instrumentations and light scattering instrumentations are needed where aerosols are resuspended. Ventilation system should be installed.

7. Make sure if a Clean Room is needed, build one.

8. Fundings are definitely needed for EOHS as well as Bioethics and Religious Ethics(?) and IRB or Institutional Review Board for any human experimentation or clinical trials of the different fields of nanotechnology related to humans. Note the following funding is for EHS only; we have to include Occupational Health and Safety.
http://www.nano.gov/html/society/Funding_SocDim.htm

9. Make sure signs are posted to alert any danger from nanotechnology.

10. http://cordis.europa.eu/fetch?CALLER=EN_NEWS&ACTION=D&SESSION=&RCN=26517

SAMPLES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY SAFETY MANUALS:

The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Micro and Nanotechnology
Laboratory general policies and safety procedures
http://www.micro.uiuc.edu/Manual.pdf#search=%22Nanotechnology%20Safety%20Manuals%22
Columbia University and the National Science Foundation Center for Electron Transport in Molecular Nanostructures, Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center
http://www.cise.columbia.edu/nsec/safety/?subsection=guide
Columbia University Center for Integrated Science & Engineering.
http://www.cise.columbia.edu/nsec/safety/?subsection=manual
http://www.cise.columbia.edu/nsec/team/
Harvard University Center for Nanoscale Systems
http://www.cns.fas.harvard.edu/facilities/nanofab_safety.php
http://www.uos.harvard.edu/ehs/onl_msd.shtml
Office of Engineering Safety
TEES and the Dwight Look College of Engineering
The Texas A & M University Systems
http://engineering.tamu.edu/safety/new/templates/nanotechnology.html
Interim Guideline for Working Safely with NanoTechnology in Engineering Operations & Facilities
Nanoparticles: An Occupational Hygiene Review by the Institute of Occupational Medicine
Rules for Working Safely with Complex Matter
Impact of Carbon Nanotube Exposures in the Lung
Inhalation toxicity Risk of Carbon Nanotubes
Potential Explosion Hazards of NanoParticles
The Wondrous World of Carbon Nanotubes: A Review of Current Carbon Nanotube Technologies
What is NanoTechnology?
http://engineering.tamu.edu/safety/guidelines/Nanotechnology/MSDS-mwnt.pdf
NANOLAB, INC.
P.O. BOX 615
WATERTOWN, MA 02172
PHONE 617 787-9822
FAX 617 787-9824
www.nano-lab.com

US STATES LAWS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY

http://www2.eli.org/research/nanotech.htm

CLEAN AIR ACT, CLEAN WATER ACT, RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION AND LIABILITY ACT, NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT,
TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT.

DISCUSSION IS NEEDED AMONG THE PAASE CURRENT MEMBERS AND FUTURE MEMBERS ON THE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING THEY ENGAGE IN WITH NANOMATERIALS, THE OBSERVANCE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS, POLICIES AND LAWS THROUGH MSDS, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUALS, AND THE MEETINGS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY EHS(OR EOHS) COMMITTEES TO ENABLE THE PAASE NANOTECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE WITH CENTERS AND INSTITUTES TO MEET THE ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS.

US States laws on nanotechnology for the following states Arkansas, California,
Massachusetts, New York, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas,
and Virginia. How about for the other States of the United States of America?

http://www2.eli.org/pdf/research/nanotech/issue.paper.appendix2.pdf

PERHAPS WE SHOULD START OFF WITH MAKING SURE MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS(MSDS) ARE GENERATED EVEN IF NOT COMPLETE FOR EVERY NANOMATERIALS.

HOW ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY?

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